The deforested and degraded forest areas in the Amazon biome cover approximately 2 million km², that is, around one-third of the Amazon forest has suffered or continues to suffer some type of human disturbance. It is estimated that more than 870,000 km² of primary forests have been cleared in the Amazon biome since 1985, an area larger than the territories of France, United Kingdom and Belgium combined. The main driver of forest loss in the Amazon is the expansion of the agricultural frontier and the conversion of forests for agricultural uses, mostly pastures and the production of commodities such as soybeans and oil palms. We must also respect and protect the Amazon’s indigenous peoples. Forest restoration is urgently needed to reconnect Amazonian ecosystems, as is restoring biodiversity and ecological function to as close as possible to the remaining forest. One of the challenges in helping preserve and restore the Amazon is that it falls under eight jurisdictions: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela, and the French overseas territory of French Guiana. What restoration and reforestation initiatives could governments take to protect the Amazon? Is it possible to reverse the damage done? Does the international community have a responsibility to help in this effort? What role could research institutions play in formulating implementable policies?